Data Vault is a new methodology of Data Warehouse Architecture. It advocates a hybrid design between Inmon 3NF and Kimball Star-schema methodologies, supporting flexibility in response to changing business rules.
Data Vault allows breaking the fact tables into multiple ones, called Hubs, and M2M tables linking them, called Links. These Hubs (belonging to one Kimball fact table) could change in relationships in the future, like 1-2-1 that may change to 1-2-M to M2M, or vice versa. Think of an order that may have different shipments in future.
Data Vault solves this type of change by simply changing the data in the Links, keeping the Hubs intact thus avoiding costly fact table modifications.
Data Vault maintains the notion of dimensions, it rename them to Satellites (SAT). These SAT support multiple Slowly changing dimension structure options, through additions of several metadata attributes, such as row validity, date of last change, etc.